MUST READ:HOW TO RENEW EXPIRED AMERICAN VISA: BEST TIPS AND LIST OF REQUIREMENTS FOR NIGERIANS. READ MORE HERE>>>>>>>>>


Nigerians have a wonderful opportunity to renew their US visas in 2018 if they were issued one before. Click on ‘READ MORE’ and learn everything about US visa renewal in Nigeria. The guide below is perfect for citizens whose US visa has already expired.

AMERICAN VISA

All Nigerians who wish to travel to the United States of American have to get a valid visa. There are particular documents required for US visa, specific requirements for the applicant and same application process, which applies to people who get their first visa and people who renew their visa.

US visa renewal is a simplified procedure for getting a new visa once your previous one has expired. This service is only available to Nigerians who are about to re-apply for their new visa in the exact same category as their previous visa that is no longer valid.

For example, let us say you had a visitor’s visa type B1 or B2, which has expired. You need to renew your visa in the same category so that you can follow the simplified requirements. However, if this time you are looking for a work type of visa such as H1, you won’t be apple to renew your expired visa. You will only have to apply following the regular requirements and rules.

REQUIREMENTS FOR US VISA RENEWAL

The procedure of US visa renewal is an easier way to get your American visa since there is no need for you to attend your interview at the embassy. You will have to bring your application to a DHL Document Drop-Off place within a year of your previous visa expiration date, but no later than 10 days prior to a full year period. For example, your US visa expired on April 30, 2018. This means you can provide all the documents for its renewal no later than by April 19-20, 2019.

Nigerians who apply for renewal of US visa are called interview waivers. They can apply for different non-immigrant visas such as B1 and B2, M, L, F, J, and H type. It is necessary to send your application to the closest to you post office and be eligible for visa renewal by meeting the following requirements.

List of general requirements for interview waivers:

  • You should have a valid Nigerian passport
  • Your previous visa interview was a successful fun and helped you be issued an American visa
  • Your previous visa’s expiration date was no more than 1 year before you re-apply
  • You were 14 years or older when you were issued your previous US visa
  • You do not have any arrests in your life in the United States of America
  • Your previous US visa hasn’t been canceled
  • You never have broken laws in the USA

Please note that there could be additional requirements depending on the type of the visa you wish to receive, so double check this list at the U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Nigeria website here https://ng.usembassy.gov/.

DOCUMENTS REQUIRED FOR US VISA RENEWAL

  • Your Nigerian passport (a valid one)
  • Application confirmation
  • Pictures (passport-sized)
  • Visa fee receipt (you should pay the official visa fee which varies from 160 U.S. dollars to 265 U.S. dollars depending on the type of the visa; this fee can be paid at any GT Bank location)
  • Your international passport with previous American visa/visas
  • Completed renewal visa form for visa type H, M, F, J (if applicable)

You have to take these documents to your a DHL drop box in Lagos or Abuja. Usually, your documents would be returned to you in up to 10 business days. However, there is no guarantee that you will be issued a renewed visa, so don’t think that these documents and your eligibility for visa renewal guarantee you anything.

These are the main requirements for US visa renewal. Nigerians who like traveling abroad and are impressed by all the tourist attractions in the USA can always re-apply for a new visa once the previous one expires. Isn’t it a great opportunity?

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GIST:FULL GUIDE ON MAKING MONEY DOING POULTRY BUSINESS. READ MORE HERE>>>>>>>>>>


Looking for a lucrative business that will earn you money and make you successful? One of the possible profitable businesses that you should drive your attention to is poultry farming. Read this guide and find out how to start a poultry farm in Nigeria, along with the other details about poultry business.

POULTRY FARMING IN NIGERIA: WHY IS IT SO APPEALING?

First of all, poultry farming is incredibly lucrative, because every day people consume tons of the poultry production. However, the demand still stays dissatisfactory. Lots of Nigerian poultry products are imported. With all this import, there are not enough native poultry goods at the local Nigerian market.

About 160 million people in Nigeria are consumers of the poultry products. Eggs, turkeys, chickens, and many other products can be classified as poultry. This impressive number shows us that the poultry farming can be really profitable. Lots of people who have a poultry farm supply the production to different events and restaurants. If the market needs poultry, it can be really profitable to produce it.

So, where to begin? How to start a poultry farm, and what to keep in mind while running it? How to make actual profit from the poultry business, especially when you have low capital? With the following advice, you will be able to start your own business and eventually grow and expand it. Hopefully, you will understand the way this business works.

 

POULTRY FARM BUSINESS PLAN

Before we move on to the actual business plan, here are a few main reasons why poultry farming can be really profitable in the country.

  • Food is vital to everyone, and nobody can live without it. Every person needs to feed to stay alive and healthy. Many people prefer poultry production above the other foods, and they are really important for their everyday lives.
  • The poultry animals grow fast. For the average chicken, it will take 28 weeks to grow up and be ready for the market. For the eggs, it takes 21 day to hatch. However, when you use the incubator, the eggs will hatch faster than usual. Most of the poultry animals – chickens, turkeys, guinea fowls – reproduce and grow really fast.
  • Poultry animals lay off lots of eggs. The farm which has 1000 layers usually will produce about 800 eggs per day. The eggs are really valued at the market, and they will bring you good profit every month. The more birds you have, the more money you will earn.
  • The prices for poultry production are quite appealing. If you sell at least a few thousand chickens every month, you have a chance to become rich. This is one of the main reasons why you should consider starting this business.

Now, we will give you a business plan that you will need to follow if you want to make money in poultry business. All the following points should be taken into consideration.

1. CHOOSE THE POULTRY NICHE THAT YOU WANT TO FOCUS ON

Poultry farming business has a lot of different branches, and of course you will not be able to do everything at once. Some people assume that the farming market is only about growing the poultry animals. However, it also covers other areas, like food production, egg production, meat production, equipment production, and so on. The first thing you have to do is decide on your preferred niche that you want to choose. Once you pick the business area that you really want to be involved into, you can start the farm.

2. CHOOSE THE BIRD BREED THAT YOU WOULD LIKE TO RAISE

There are a lot of different breeds of birds that you can raise on the farm. Each breed has its own approximate cost of maintenance. When you determine the type of birds that you are going to raise on your farm, and have idea how to reach out to your future customers, you can start your business. There are various breeds that you can choose from: chickens, guinea fowls, turkeys, peacocks, ducks, quails, geese, and many others. When you choose the breed, you will have to decide which production you want to be a part of. If you want to produce meat, you will have to raise broilers. If you would like to go into eggs production, you should raise layers. Every breed of birds has a special purpose.

3. PICK THE PERFECT LOCATION FOR YOUR BUSINESS

The poultry farm location is really important, because it will influence how your business will go. For example, you must know that starting a farm in the remote area will be much cheaper than doing it in the city area. The government usually will not give permission for the big scale poultry farm in the urban area, as they are concerned about health implications. This means that you will have to place the farm beyond the city. The location of your farm has to be not very far from the city area for convenience of product transportation to the potential customers. It will be much cheaper to travel for one hour than for six hours. Picking an area with convenient road network to the city would be a tricky task, but once you do this, your chances of success will increase.

4. THINK ABOUT THE CAPITAL INVESTMENT

Like with every other business, running the poultry farm will require investing some money into it. The amount of money depends on the location and the size of the farm. The average sum of money that people invest into their farm is 100,000 to 10,000,000 Naira. Your investment in your farm fully depends on your expectations that you lay on it.

5. BUY THE EQUIPMENT AND FACILITIES FOR THE FARMING

If you want to become a successful farmer, the housing system plays a really significant role in it. The housing system influences the placing of your birds, identification of the birds who are productive or not productive, and their health in general. We will talk about poultry farming equipment in details later.

6. PURCHASE THE POULTRY FOOD

As you probably realize, the bird feed is the most crucial key not only to their productivity, but also their survival. Usually, the farmers spend about 70% of their total expenses on food for their animals. You can pepare or purchase poultry feeds. If you run a large farm, you can manufacture them, because it will potentially save you money. If you are still a beginner and your farm is quite small, you can opt for buying the feeds, because setting up the manufacturing plant takes a lot of effort and money.

7. PAY ATTENTION TO THE HEALTH CONDITION OF YOUR BIRDS

It is vitally important to make sure that your birds are feeling well. This means that you will have to regularly spend money on medicine and vaccines for the birds. If the birds are healthy, they will grow strong and give you products of the best quality.

This was the basic business plan for starting a successful poultry farm. Now, we will see which equipment you will need for your poultry business.

POULTRY FARMING EQUIPMENT

First of all, the housing system is what your farming will not stand a chance without. Every farm needs a good housing system, and there are three major types of them. Let us see what they are called and which functions they perform.

  • Free roam – in this system, the farmer buys chicks and allows them to roam for feeding themselves. Even though this system is convenient in some ways, it will not be good for those farmers who would like the aggressive production for the wide-scale commercial usage. The reason for it is simple: the birds can easily get away and go missing.
  • Battery cage – this system foresees keeping the birds in the cages and feeding them regularly. This system is known for high organization and effectiveness, which is clearly good for poultry farming. The birds have access to their food and water through the cages and troughs. Besides, the cages are also separated into a few compartments, and it creates the ideal environment for the birds to lay off their eggs.
  • Deep litter – this type of housing system involves the saw dust to be poured on the ground all over the wide area. This way, the birds are more comfortable with their existence, and it also makes the bird habitat easy to clean. However, there is one disadvantage in this system, and this is the difficulties of managing the disease outbreaks.

Apart from the poultry housing, there are multiple facilities that can make your farm more organized and successful. These are:

  • Egg trays
  • Drinkers
  • Feeders
  • Lighting system
  • Nests
  • Incubators
  • Crates
  • Heaters
  • Waste disposal systems

If you think through all your facilities and get the most convenient and up-to-date ones, then your farm will have a chance to expand and become successful.

This was a guide about starting a poultry business in Nigeria, eventually becoming successful with it and making profit. If you still doubt whether you should start your own business, just go for it! You can also read other business-related posts on our website.

GIST:SEE: HERE’S SOMETHING YOU SHOULD DO EVERY 2 HOURS IF YOU SWEAT A LOT. READ MORE HERE>>>>>>>


THE CAN BE DAMAGING TO YOUR SKIN, BUT LUCKILY THERE ARE WAYS TO PROTECT IT.

GIST: CHEAPEST DATA PLANS FOR IOS, ANDROID AND OTHER DEVICES IN MAY 2018. READ MORE HERE>>>>>>>>>


Hello guys, it’s the beginning of the new month and I’m guessing some of you are already preparing to subscribe to an affordable data plan.

An expensive smartphone without access to internet can be liken to Nokia 3310 old model. So we’ll be reviewing the data plan you can easily go for this month.

Though nothing has changed so far with regards to the data you can subscribe for but its good we revisit the existing data plans.

NTEL DATA PLAN

Ntel data plans rocks the most in the month of April because with just N2000, you gain access to 20GB of data and on renewal; you gain access to over 500% bonus. People who stays in places like Lagos, Port-Harcourt, Abuja and other areas where Ntel network is visible can testify of this.

However, I’m guessing this offer has elapsed because ntel says the offer ends 30th of April. Those of you who are currently using ntel should kindly help us confirm if we can still subscribe to this offer.

9MOBILE

You can still subscribe to 9mobile normal data plans depending on your data usage.

Daily Data Plans

10MB For 50Naira- *229*3*8# or send MI3 to 229- 1day

40MB For 100Naira- *229*3*1# or send MI1 to 229- 1day

Weekly Plans

150MB For 200Naira- *229*2*10# or send LCD to 229- 7days

Monthly Data Plans

500MB For 500Naira- *229*2*12# or send LCD2 to 229- 30days

1GB For 1000Naira- *229*2*7#- 30days

1.5GB For 1200Naira- *229*2*25# or send AND11 TO 229 (30days)

2.5GB 2000Naira *229*2*8# or send AND2 to 229

4GB For 3000Naira *229*2*35#

5.5GB For 4000Naira *229*2*9#

11.5GB For 8000Naira *229*2*5# or send MB6 to 229

 

9mobile Night & Weekend Data Plans

>> 500Naira for 1GB Weekend plan from Friday 11:59pm- Sunday 11:59pm- *5995*2#

>> 200Naira for 1GB Night Plan from 12am- 5am- *229*3*11#

>> 1000Naira for 2GB Evening & Weekend plans from 7pm- 7am- *229*3*12#

9Mobile For Heavy Internet Users

Third party reseller is always the best therefore I’ll advice you to go for third party resellers plan.

You’ll get

16GB for N5000

32GB for N7000

59GB for N10000.

Validity is 90 days.

Call or whatsapp this number 08135492059

AIRTEL NG

It seems Airtel NG is trying to play prank on subscribers using the 1.8GB for N500plans. A lot of users have complained of getting 750GB instead of 1.8GB which is absolutely not worthy.

However, you can still go for Airtel Double data offer if you are eligible. Validity is 30 days and you can Dial *440*161# to know if you are eligible.

Cheapest Airtel Data Plan

If you do more of Youtube streaming then you can go for the below Airtel Data offers

Recharge N1000 and get 4.5GB data
(1.5GB android data + 3GB YouTube streaming)

Recharge N2000 and get 9.5GB data
(3.5GB android data + 6GB YouTube streaming)

Recharge N2500 and get 15GB data
(5GB android data + 10GB YouTube streaming)

Recharge N3500 and get 17 GB data
(7GB android data + 10 GB YouTube streaming)

Recharge N4000 and get 19GB data
(9GB android data + 10GB YouTube streaming)

Each of the data will last you for 30 days and the YouTube free data is only usable at night.

Dial *323# and follow the prompt to subscribe

Glo NG

For glo users, nothing has changed. No new offers, no improvement and still slow in major areas. If its fast in your location then Adenuga’s cousin must be your next neighbor.

Dial *777# to subscribe to any of Glo data plans

MTN

I solely recommend third party data resellers.

You’ll get 1GB for N600

2GB for N1100

4GB for N2200

5GB for N2800

10GB for N5500

NEWS:13 YOUNG GIRLS RESCUED AS OFFICIALS RAID GUEST HOUSE IN ABUJA. SEE MORE PHOTOS HERE>>>>>>>>


Operatives of the National Agency for the Prohibition of Trafficking in Persons (NAPTIP) today raided a guest house in Gwagwalada area of FCT, Amazonia Guest House, where they rescued 13 young girls suspected to be victims of human trafficking.

A suspect, Afeez Abdulsalam, who has been on the Agency’s watch list for procuring young girls for onward travel to Saudi Arabia where they are faced with various forms of exploitation, was also arrested.

Backed by a court order, a search was conducted and the premises sealed off until investigation is completed.

FASHION: Corps Member slays in her ‘bespoke’ NYSC Khaki (Photos)


It is now a common trend for Members of the National Youth Service Corps, NYSC, to occasionally modify to taste, their khaki uniforms into more fashionable designs and rock them outdoors.

A Female corps member, has got herself trending online after delectable photos of her rocking her khaki uniform emerged on social media.

The lady identified as Benedicta Etim who serves in Ebonyi State, got creative with her uniform to mark her birthday.

See more photos below;

MUST READ: 11 Women Reveal the Best Ways to Break Up With Your Girlfriend. Read More Here>>>>>>>>>>>


11 Women Reveal the Best Ways to Break Up With Your

​The breaker-upper will always be labeled the a-hole. But what kind of a-hole do you want to be?

Neil Sedaka said it best. Breaking up is hard to do. Especially when you do it really, really badly. There’s no easy way to end a , barring an epic Cheat!ng spree. The worst breakups are the ones where no one is at fault; it’s just…not it. As bad as it is to be the dumpee, it’s often worse to be the dumper. Still, there are ways to end a that are better than others, and might at the end of the day leave her thinking, “Damn, now that’s a really good guy.”

We reached out to 11 women and asked them to share the best way to end things so that the band aid that is your relationship is ripped off as cleanly and as painlessly as possible. Below, their thoughts.

“A phone call is the bare minimum. The last time I was dumped, it was via phone, and we had dated for three months, and it was semi-long distance, about an hour away. Some of my friends were insulted on my behalf that he didn’t do it in person, but honestly, this was better. One of us was going to travel an hour and then break up? That would have been brutal. Text message and e-mail are out of the question, but phone call or in-person can both be appropriate, depending on how serious you were and how long it lasted.” – Ann, 31

“Don’t let it linger. You know it’s time to break up when you start to get really annoyed by the little things, and when you’re ready to snap. Really, it’s not her fault if her throat-clearing or table manners start to drive you up the wall. Break up with her before you start treating her poorly. When you are treating someone Sh!tty because you don’t want to be with them anymore, that’s where you poison the waters, which leads to drama in the breakup and aftermath.” – Kerri, 31

“Keep it short. Nothing you say is going to make it easier on her, so you need to recognize that and assert three things. One, yes, you had feelings for her and enjoyed your time together. Two, she’s done nothing wrong, and you’d tell anyone she was a great girlfriend. Three, you are 100 percent sure of this.” – Fiona, 32

“Do not be vague. Saying things such as, ‘maybe, someday…’ or, ‘I think I might regret this down the line,’ or, ‘For now,’ creates hope in her mind and gives her something to hold onto. If you are making the moves to end it, make it concrete. Many times people hold onto threads of relationships because they like the idea that there is someone waiting in the wings who has feelings for them, but that is unfair to do to a woman who might otherwise meet someone who knows instantly that she is the one.” – Meghan, 31

“If you actually want to be friends with the girl you’re breaking up with, that’s nice and all, but it is entirely up to her. She should decide when or if you guys can chat. You cannot force your friendship on someone, and trying to do it is a D!ck thing. The only time the person breaking up gets to assert control over this is if the girl is too friendly, texting, and calling all the time.” – Brooke, 29

“If you actually want to be friends with the girl you’re breaking up with, that’s nice and all, but it is entirely up to her. She should decide when or if you guys can chat. You cannot force your friendship on someone, and trying to do it is a D!ck thing. The only time the person breaking up gets to assert control over this is if the girl is too friendly, texting, and calling all the time.” – Brooke, 29

“If you actually want to be friends with the girl you’re breaking up with, that’s nice and all, but it is entirely up to her. She should decide when or if you guys can chat. You cannot force your friendship on someone, and trying to do it is a D!ck thing. The only time the person breaking up gets to assert control over this is if the girl is too friendly, texting, and calling all the time.” – Brooke, 29

“The biggest breakup I had was mutual and very amicable after we stumbled across a deal breaker: I wanted kids, and he didn’t. We lived in different states and he was visiting me at the time, so after we had a long conversation about having children, we still had a few days together before he flew home. I expected those couple of days to be extremely awkward, but I think having those two days together went a long way towards making our break up so clean and truly amicable. We got the opportunity to say everything that we wanted to say to one another, and helped each other through the worst of coming to terms with the fact that you can someone who you’re just not meant to be with.” – Meredith, 29

“The guy who took my V!rg!n!ty broke up with me over the phone. He was honest—a relationship with one of this close friends had taken a romantic turn and he wanted too see where it went. He was a coward for not breaking up with me in person, especially after several months of dating, and knowingly taking my V!rg!n!ty. I was devastatingly disappointed, but his honesty was the source of closure that I needed to ultimately know the breakup was no reflection on me. Interestingly enough, I ended up recycling his line to break up with someone else and I think it had the same effect.” – Laurel, 30

“The person who initiates the break up will inevitably be cast as an asshole. It really comes down to what kind of asshole do you want to be? A direct and honest asshole who is considerate enough to give a woman the answers and closure that she needs to decisively move on, or a cowardly asshole who’s not confident enough in himself to accept responsibility for his wants and decisions? Ghosting and just hoping that she’ll break up with you are signature, cowardly, asshole maneuvers.” – Margaret, 27

“Many women I know and respect are all for the in-person or over the phone break up. It is indeed admirable and the right thing to do. However, speaking as a woman who is somewhat cowardly herself when it comes to confrontation, I understand the tremendous guilt and fear that goes into telling someone, ‘Hey you’re great, but not great enough for me.’ One of the best breakups I ever had was, in fact, over e-mail. And while many women might scoff at that and call him a jerk, I found his note to be incredibly thoughtful. He took the time to tell me how much he enjoyed our time together and that I did nothing wrong. He ended up reconnecting with his ex of seven years. He said he wished things were different or that we met at another time and he hoped that one day we could be friends. Of course I was crushed, but from his words I knew we didn’t have a romantic future and that I could start to move on. And it turns out, a year later, we are incredibly close friends.” – Meagan, 29

BY MEAGAN DRILLINGER

MUST READ:Singer Tiwa Savage stuns in Denim Bum Shorts. See More Photos Here>>>>>>>>>>>


Nigerian singer, songwriter and mother of one – Tiwa Savage is unargueably one of the sexiest celebrity in the country.

The 38-year-old proudly flaunted her derriere in a lacy lingerie top and cut-off denim shorts.

Mummy Jamil rocked that ravishing look at the Gidi Fest event which took place in Lagos.

Other notable celebrities like Wizkid, Tubaba and Brymo also graced the Gidi Fest event.

See more photos below:

Meanwhile Tiwa Savage seems to have given up on her failed union with husband of four years, Teebillz as it’s said that their divorce is at the verge of getting settled.

A report by Tunezmedia disclosed that the Nigerian music star and her husband, Tee Billz have failed to reconcile and so will be getting an official divorce as they go their separate ways after over four years together as husband and wife.

Tiwa was however recently celebrated by the American Embassy in Nigeria. She was shortlisted amongst several other influential Nigerian women.

The list was curated by the United States of America in Nigeria. Other phenomenal women on the list include former Minister of Communication Omobola Johnson, Amina Mohammed, current Deputy Secretary-General of UN, and Nigeria’s former Minister of Environment, Ngozi Okonjo Iweala, former Minister of finance.

NEWS: Anthony Joshua is worth millions of pounds – but his close family in live in POVERTY. Read Full Story Here>>>>>>>


anthony joshua worth millions

Anthony Joshua is on track to becoming boxing’s first billionaire – but his family in Nigeria live in poverty.

Ring superstar Anthony Joshua, 28, is believed to have raked in £13million for fighting Joseph Parker last night, which he won on points via a unanimous decision.

He has earned at least £30m more from just 19 bouts.

And sponsorship deals have pushed that total to around £100m. Yet the Daily Star Sunday can exclusively reveal that Joshua’s aunts and uncles on his father’s side are living in deprived conditions compared to their favourite nephew.

Their house – in Sagamu, Ogun State – sits on a dirt street called Akarigbo Road. On each side are rickety buildings, and ramshackle trading stalls stretch into the distance.

An open drainage gulley runs outside the house. The building, home to at least three generations of the Joshua family including great grandad Prince Daniel Adebambo Joshua, is small and has mismatched windows.

But the family are hugely proud of their boy – and have his picture over the front door.

Anthony’s uncle Benjamin Ademola Joshua said: “We feel so happy. We feel so elated. We can’t even express our joy that this sort of thing can come to our family because we are not noisemakers in our family.

“We never knew that we could come to the limelight like that.”

He added: “Anthony’s father comes to Nigeria at least six times in a year. He has got a mighty building in Ijebu-Ode.

“There are many attached to that town. They all have houses there, seven houses in Ijebu-Ode. But the first point of call is the Joshua house here in Sagamu.”

Benjamin revealed that the Olympic gold medallist – who went to school in Nigeria – has been too busy with his boxing to visit Sagamu for 14 years.

He said: “Because Anthony is celebrating now he cannot just leave his domain. Before, he used to come on holidays. When he comes he stays with his grandparents in Ijebu-Ode. He has got a lovely house in Ijebu-Ode.”

Officials in Ogun State plan to rename the local sports stadium after Anthony, along with one of the area’s most famous roads, Cinema Street.

The heavyweight hero is a big believer in helping the underprivileged, and has a track record of supporting charities.

He has funded his old boxing club in Finchley and the GB boxing squad, and even treated his ex-trainer to a £90,000 BMW.

But so far he has not invested in similar projects in Nigeria.

Oba Adewale Osiberu, a relative of Anthony’s mum, said: “People are now showing interest in boxing and we are hoping the world champion will assist the town.”

But Benjamin added: “In our family, we respect each other’s opinion so much. We don’t stampede anybody into taking action. So we will leave that to him.”

Source: Daily star.

MUST READ: What is Easter: Understanding the History and Symbols. Read More Here>>>>>>>>


What is : Understanding the History and Symbols

What is Easter?

Easter is the celebration of the resurrection of Jesus from the tomb on the third day after his cruxifixion. Easter is the fulfilled prophecy of the Messiah who would be persecuted, die for our sins, and rise on the third day. (Isaiah 53). Remembering the resurrection of Jesus is a way to renew daily hope that we have victory over sin.

Read the Biblical account of Resurrection Day in Matthew 28, Mark 16, and Luke 24 and more Easter Bible verses at BibleStudyTools.com.

When did Easter start?

The early Christians began remembering the Resurrection every Sunday following its occurrence. In A.D. 325, the Council of Nicaea set aside a special day just to celebrate the Resurrection.  The problem with an official day was deciding whether the Resurrection should be celebrated on a weekday or always on a Sunday.

Many felt that the date should continue to be based on the timing of the Resurrection during Passover. Once Jewish leaders determined the date of Passover each year, Christian leaders could set the date for Easter by figuring three days after Passover. Following this schedule would have meant that Easter would be a different day of the week each year, only falling on a Sunday once in awhile.

Others believed since the Lord rose on a Sunday and this day had been set aside as the Lord’s Day, this was the only possible day to celebrate His resurrection. As Christianity drew away from Judaism, some were reluctant to base the Christian celebration on the Jewish calendar.

Finally the Council decided Easter should be celebrated on the Sunday following the first full moon after the vernal equinox. Since the date of the vernal equinox changed from year to year, calculating the proper date can be difficult. This is still the method used to determine Easter today, which is why some years we have Easter earlier than other years.

Since Easter is a celebration of Jesus’ Resurrection, you would think there wouldn’t be room for paganism. However Easter is one of the holidays most intertwined with pagan symbolism and ritual.

What does Easter mean?

The origin of the word easter isn’t certain. The Vernerable Bede, an eighth-century monk and scholar, suggested that the word may have come from the Anglo-Saxon Eeostre or Eastre – a Teutonic goddess of spring and fertility. Recent scholars haven’t been able to find any reference to the goddess Bede mentioned and consider the theory discredited.

Another possibility is the Norse eostur, eastur, or ostara, which meant “the season of the growing sun” or “the season of new birth.” The word east comes from the same roots. In this case, easter would be linked to the changing of the season.

A more recent and complex explanation comes from the Christian background of Easter rather than the pagan. The early Latin name for the week of Easter was hebdomada alba or “white week,” while the Sunday after Easter day was called dominica in albis from the white robes of those who had been newly baptized. The word alba is Latin both for white and dawn. People speaking Old High German made a mistake in their translation and used a plural word for dawn, ostarun, instead of a plural for white. From ostarun we get the German Ostern and the English Easter.

Origin and history of Easter

What is the first thing that comes to mind when you think of Easter? As a Christian, the first image might be the cross or the empty tomb. For the general public, a blitz of media images and merchandise on store shelves makes it more likely that the Easter Bunny comes to mind. So how did a rabbit distributing become a part of Easter?

There are several reasons for the rabbit, or hare, to be associated with Easter, all of which come through pagan celebrations or beliefs. The most obvious is the hare’s fertility. Easter comes during spring and celebrates new life. The Christian meaning of new life through Christ and a general emphasis on new life are different, but the two gradually merged. Any animals – like the hare – that produced many offspring were easy to include.

The hare is also an ancient symbol for the moon. The date of Easter depends on the moon. This may have helped the hare to be absorbed into Easter celebrations.

The hare or rabbit’s burrow helped the animal’s adoption as part of Easter celebrations. Believers saw the rabbit coming out of its underground home as a symbol for Jesus coming out of the tomb. Perhaps this was another case of taking a pre-existing symbol and giving it Christian meaning.

The Easter hare came to America with German immigrants, and the hare’s role passed to the common American rabbit. Originally children made nests for the rabbit in hats, bonnets, or fancy paper boxes, rather than the baskets of today. Once the children finished their nests, they put them in a secluded spot to keep from frightening the shy rabbit. The appealing nests full of colored eggs probably helped the customs to spread.

Back in Southern Germany, the first pastry and candy Easter bunnies became popular at the beginning of the nineteenth century. This custom also crossed the Atlantic, and children still eat candy rabbits – particularly chocolate ones – at Easter.

Origin and history of Easter Eggs

Next to the Easter bunny, the most familiar symbol is the Easter egg. Like others, the egg has a long pre-Christian history. Again there’s no certainty as to why it became associated with Easter.

Many Ancient cultures viewed eggs as a symbol of life. Hindus, Egyptians, Persians, and Phoenicians believed the world begun with an enormous egg. The Persians, Greeks, and Chinese gave gifts of eggs during spring festivals in celebration of new life all around them. Other sources say people ate dyed eggs at spring festivals in Egypt, Persia, Greece, and Rome. In ancient Druid lore, the eggs of serpents were sacred and stood for life.

Early Christians looked at the connection eggs had to life and decided eggs could be a part of their celebration of Christ’s resurrection. In addition, in some areas, eggs were forbidden during Lent; therefore, they were a delicacy at Easter. Since many of the earlier customs were Eastern in origin, some speculate that early missionaries or knights of the Crusade may have been responsible for bringing the tradition to the West.

In the fourth century, people presented eggs in church to be blessed and sprinkled with holy water. By the twelfth century, the Benedictio Ovorum had been introduced authorizing the special use of eggs on the holy days of Easter. The timing of this blessing would uphold the idea that Crusaders may have brought the tradition back. Even though eggs had been used previously, the Crusaders may have made the custom more popular and widespread.

In 1290, Edward I of England recorded a purchase of 450 eggs to be colored or covered with gold leaf. He then gave the eggs to members of the royal household.

Once the custom became accepted, new traditions began to grow up around it. Eggs were dyed red for joy, and in memory of Christ’s blood. Egg rolling contests came to America from England, possibly as a reminder of the stone being rolled away.

What about the familiar Easter Egg hunt? One source suggested that it grew out of the tradition of German children searching for hidden pretzels during the Easter season. Since children were hiding nests for the Easter Bunny to fill with eggs at the same time they were hunting pretzels, it was only a small leap to begin hiding eggs instead.

The Easter

Of all Easter symbols, the lamb is probably the most strongly Christian. Other than the fact that lambs are young animals born in springtime, it has no strong ties to pagan traditions.

The lamb comes from the Jewish Passover, where each family killed a lamb as a sacrifice. When Christ became the Passover Lamb for everyone, the lamb became a symbol for His sacrifice.

John 1:29 – “The next day John saw Jesus coming toward him and said, “Look, the Lamb of God, who takes away the sin of the world!”

1 Peter 1:18-21 – “For you know that it was not with perishable things such as silver or gold that you were redeemed from the empty way of life handed down to you from your ancestors, but with the precious blood of Christ, a lamb without blemish or defect. He was chosen before the creation of the world, but was revealed in these last times for your sake. Through him you believe in God, who raised him from the dead and glorified him, and so your faith and hope are in God.”

 

 

BY Susan E. Richardson

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